Maps of the dynamic topography of the North Atlantic are used to show the baroclinic component of the general circulation at different depths. The subtropical region of simple Sverdruptype circulation is delineated. A region of strong baroclinic recirculation, particularly at middepth, is identified at the northwestern edge of the subtropical gyre. At higher latitudes, the middepth topographic high of the recirculation regime fills the entire width of the ocean....
Stommel, Henry, Pearn Niiler, and David Anati. 1978. "Dynamic topography and recirculation of the North Atlantic." Journal of Marine Research 36, (3). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/1438