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We consider inference on optimal treatment assignments. Our methods allow for inference on the treatment assignment rule that would be optimal given knowledge of the population treatment eﬀect in a general setting. The procedure uses multiple hypothesis testing methods to determine a subset of the population for which assignment to treatment can be determined to be optimal after conditioning on all available information, with a prespeciﬁed level of conﬁdence. A Monte Carlo study conﬁrms that the inference procedure has good small sample behavior. We apply the method to study Project STAR and the optimal assignment of small class based on school and teacher characteristics.
Armstrong, Timothy B. and Shen, Shu, "Inference on Optimal Treatment Assignments" (2013). Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers. 2322.