We survey critically the brief history of modeling party competition in general elections, beginning with the Hotelling-Downs model with a unidimensional policy space, and the Wittman model with endogenous parties, to the multi-dimensional citizen-candidate and PUNE models. Some applications of the newer models are discussed.
Roemer, John E., "Modeling Party Competition in General Elections" (2004). Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers. 1770.