Date of Award

January 2020

Document Type

Open Access Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Public Health (MPH)


School of Public Health

First Advisor

John E. Pachankis


While intra-group discrimination is commonly experienced among men in the LGBT community, little is known about the intersection of multiple forms of discrimination. This study used a latent class analysis (LCA) to visualize the intersections of different forms of perceived discrimination and to evaluate to what degree LCA membership is associated with depression, anxiety, and somatization among a sample of racially and ethnically diverse men who have sex with men (MSM). The data was sourced from the Gay Community Stress Scale (GCSS) wherein participants were asked to what degree their perception of the mainstream gay community’s racism, racial objectification, masculinity consciousness, classism, and tribe consciousness caused them stress. Participants also completed the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), a validated measure of psychological distress and psychiatric disorders based on self-report. A total of 937 (66.5 %) MSM were included in the LCA analytic sample (10.7 % Black, 25.1 % Hispanic, 73.4 % Gay). The LCA resulted in a 5-class solution that had a compelling relative and absolute fit. These 5 classes were defined as: Masculinity Stress (11%); Low Stress (47.1 %); Moderate Stress (10.2 %); High Stress (12.2%); Racism Stress (19.5%). Multivariate models revealed that, compared to the Low Stress class, individuals in the High Stress, Moderate Stress class, and the Masculinity Stress class had higher odds of endorsing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization. Interaction effects between race and masculinity were observed in likelihood of latent class membership, with all forms of racialized masculinity/ femininity displaying lower odds of occupying the Low Stress class than masculine White men. Future research should consider the co-occurrence of multiple forms of intra-group discrimination and its impact on the mental health of MSM who occupy the intersection of marginalized racial masculinity and femininity.


This is an Open Access Thesis.

Open Access

This Article is Open Access