Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Public Health (MPH)


School of Public Health

First Advisor

Nicole Deziel


Copsa Mica is an industrial town with primary zinc and lead smelter operating from 1930s to

1990s in northwestern Romania. Even after the shutdown of the factory and a series remediation effort,

lead is ubiquitous in its environment and remains as a big risk for local health. Previous study

evaluating the blood lead level of children in this region revealed a range of mean from 20.51µg/dL to

53.04 µg/dL, which exceeded the recognized CDC guidelines. The paper aims at providing detailed

information about spatial distribution of lead in soil and dust to better understand the lead exposure

and choose the most appropriate intervention strategies to bring down the BLL in children to safe level.

Soil and dust samples were collected in situ at Copsa Mica. Samples were sealed and transported to

Environmental Health Center laboratory for lead analysis using X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry.

Predicted Blood lead levels for children were calculated in IEUBK model using measured soil lead

and dust lead as input data. Basic descriptive statistics were derived for both environmental lead

exposure and predicted blood lead level. Correlation analysis was conducted between lead

concentrations in different exposure media. GIS analysis was derived for soil lead concentration and

predicted BLL. The study shows that there is a moderate association between lead in outdoor soil and

outdoor dust. The lead in soil greatly exceeds the safe level and remains a major contributor to elevated

BLL. The predicted BLL reveals an exposure level higher than 10 µg /dL. Several hotspots were

identified through GIS analysis and site specific intervention method were given to bring the BLL

down to the safe level.


This is an Open Access Thesis.

Open Access

This Article is Open Access