Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Public Health (MPH)


School of Public Health

First Advisor

Leonard E. Munstermann

Second Advisor

Philip M. Armstrong


Vector control in the Caribbean Island of Montserrat relies on routine residential inspections to count, identify, and treat standing water sources where mosquito larvae develop. Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and C. nigripalpus are local domestic pests with competence to transmit several pathogens including dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika viruses. With the recent emergences of Chikungunya and Zika viruses in the Caribbean, evaluating infestation densities is an important step in identifying target areas for increased vector control. The current study aimed to depict the burden of domestic mosquito infestations in Montserrat based on infestation indices and the abundance of containers that serve as potential larval habitats. Data from residential inspections performed by the Vector Control Team of the Montserrat Environmental Health Department 2013-2015 were used to calculate infestation index measures. The House Index, Container Index, and Breteau Index were calculated for six Montserrat localities for each year. Container types noted during inspections were ranked by frequency to determine their relative abundance. The House Index ranged across localities from 2.5% to 11.4% in 2013, 5.1% to 11.5% in 2014, and 3.9% to 18.5% in 2015. The Container Index ranged from 4.2% to 11.7% in 2013, 2.4% to 9.2% in 2014, and 3.7% to 20.6%in 2015. The Breteau Index ranged from 7.6 to 25.5 in 2013, 5.1 to 24.0 in 2014, and 6.1 to 44.6 in 2015. Mosquito species identified were Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and C. nigripalpus. The most abundant container types ranked from greatest to least abundance were outdoor artificial containers, barrels/drums, and tires. Variability in mosquito density may reflect differences in population density, housing structures, water sources, and the presence of seasonally or permanently uninhabited homes. Localities with particularly high indices represent intervention targets such as container reduction and water treatment with larvicide.

Open Access

This Article is Open Access