Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Medical Science (MMSc)

First Advisor

Erica Spatz, MD, MHS


Hormone therapy is the mainstay of treatment for menopausal symptoms. However, many patients are denied treatment because they have established cardiovascular disease, or risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Hormone therapy is not recommended for women with established cardiovascular disease, but no study to date has examined the impact of hormone therapy on women with cardiovascular disease risk factors but without established disease. In this study, we will examine hormone therapy in women with known cardiovascular risk factors. We will randomly assign recently menopausal women with cardiovascular risk factors and menopausal symptoms to hormone therapy, measuring the mean change from baseline in carotid intima-media thickness, a surrogate marker of coronary artery disease. The results of this study will help guide conversations with patients about the risks and benefits of hormone therapy, treatment recommendations, and improve personalized care to symptomatic menopausal women with cardiovascular risk factors.