Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access Thesis

Degree Name

Medical Doctor (MD)

First Advisor

Martina Brueckner


Congenital heart defects due to the aberrant development of the atrioventricular (AV) valves and septum are among the most common developmental abnormality in newborns and cause significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. A key point in cardiac morphogenesis occurs when cells within the endocardial cushions (ECCs), the precursors for the AV valvoseptal complex, delaminate and undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT). The mesenchymal cells then proliferate and the cushion area elongates to form the AV valves and portions of the AV septae. The signals that initiate region-specific EMT during heart development are unknown. Cilia, known for their role in establishing left-right (LR) asymmetry, function to receive and integrate extracellular signals, including fluid flow, in a range of other organ systems. We hypothesize that cilia could also have a direct role in heart development outside of their role in LR development. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated the presence of cilia on the myocardium, epicardium, and ECCs of wild-type mouse hearts at embryonic day (e) 9.5 and e12.5. To characterize the potential role of these cilia, we compared mice with mutations affecting ciliary biogenesis, motility, and mechanosensation. Using bright field microscopy and in situ hybridization, we analyzed the embryonic heart structure and the expression pattern of Gata4, an EMT transcription factor. We showed that compared to mice with immotile but structurally normal cilia, the mice without cilia had hypocellular ECCs, a thinned compact myocardium (CM), and an up-regulated expression of Gata4. These observations suggest that a subset of cilia called cardiac cilia have a role in cardiogenesis outside of their role in LR development and affect Gata4 expression. One possible function of cardiac cilia is as mechanosensors, integrating fluid flow and influencing cardiac morphogenesis including EMT and development of the CM.


This is an Open Access Thesis.

Open Access

This Article is Open Access