Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access Thesis

Degree Name

Medical Doctor (MD)

First Advisor

Andre Sofair


Chronic liver disease (CLD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals. The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence and etiologies of CLD in an urban HIV-infected population and to identify CLD risk factors. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 799 HIV-infected patients seen at four New Haven health centers from 2002 to 2003. We applied the New Haven County Liver Study definition to identify patients with CLD. 65% were male, 44% were African American, and 23% were of Hispanic ethnicity. The mean age was 45 years. 30% had a history of alcohol abuse. 35% reported injection drug use as their HIV risk factor. Heterosexual contact and men having sex with men (MSM) were reported in 31% and 16% of cases. 50% of patients had a diagnosis of AIDS. 60% percent of patients had CLD. Over 50% of cases of CLD were attributed to chronic hepatitis C (HCV), either alone or with coexisting alcoholic liver disease. Alcoholic liver disease alone, hepatitis B virus (HBV), HAART-induced liver disease, and non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) accounted for smaller percentages. 84% of patients were on HAART, but only 3.6% of patients with positive HCV or HBV serologies were on treatment for CLD. 75% of patients received pneumococcal and influenza vaccines, but only half of eligible patients received hepatitis A and B vaccines. In multivariate analysis, alcohol abuse and positive HCV status were associated with CLD. CLD is prevalent in our population. Preventive care and treatment for CLD are being overlooked in many. Vaccines, treatment for viral hepatitis, and strategies for reducing drug and alcohol abuse are priorities.


This is an Open Access Thesis.

Open Access

This Article is Open Access