Date of Award

January 2013

Document Type


Degree Name

Medical Doctor (MD)



First Advisor

Judson A. Brewer

Subject Area(s)

Behavioral sciences, Psychology


ROLE OF HOME PRACTICE IN RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF MINDFULNESS MEDITATION FOR SMOKING CESSATION. Sarah Mallik, Theresa A. Babuscio, Charla Nich, Hayley E. Johnson, Cameron M. Deleone, Candace A. Minnix-Cotton, and Judson A. Brewer. Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

Mindfulness training (MT) has been shown to be a promising therapy for addictions, but its use for smoking cessation has not been investigated through randomized controlled trials. Within MT, participants are encouraged to perform home practice of mindfulness techniques, but few studies have been conducted concerning the relationship between home practice and therapy outcomes.

Data was collected from 88 treatment-seeking adults who were randomly assigned to receive MT or the American Lung Association's Freedom from Smoking (FFS) treatment. Participants in both groups were asked to log the amount of home practice performed daily. Individuals who performed more home practice in the MT group were hypothesized to have better smoking cessation outcomes compared to those who practiced less by the end of the treatment period at week 4 and through follow-up at week 17. Primary outcomes included expired-air carbon monoxide-confirmed 7-day point prevalence abstinence and number of cigarettes/day.

Home practice was not associated with outcomes among individuals receiving FFS (all p>.315). In the MT group, formal practice (including three types of sitting meditation: body scan, awareness of breath and loving-kindness) was inversely correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked/day at week 4 (r=-.442, p=.019). Informal practice (including setting aspiration, performing daily activity mindfully, and using the mnemonic RAIN to deal with cravings) also showed strong inverse correlations with outcomes (r=-.479; p=.010). No associations existed between home practice and outcomes at follow-up at week 17 in either group. Home practice may amplify the effectiveness of MT for smoking cessation, whereas it may play a less significant role in other interventions such as FFS.


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