Based on certain hypotheses, vertical motion in the upper layers is found to be related to the poleward transport in the lower layers. Upwelling off the California coast, based on recent data, is examined; the theoretical result appears to be confirmed by comparison with other independent indications. A new method of locating regions of upwelling with the approximate velocity is proposed.
Yoshida, Kozo, and Han-lee Mao. 1957. "A theory of upwelling of large horizontal extent." Journal of Marine Research 16, (1). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/881