Meridional sections of σt, salinity, inorganic phosphate, and dissolved oxygen, based on new data from the central equatorial Pacific, show evidences of upwelling near the equator. An Equatorial Front in the ocean surface layer is described. Sinking occurs along this front, which is found most often just north of the equator....
Cromwell, Townsend. 1953. "Circulation in a meridional plane in the Central Equatorial Pacific." Journal of Marine Research 12, (2). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/793