In temperate latitudes the oxygen content of sea water near the surface varies with the season. This results because the solubility of oxygen in the water changes with its temperature and because of the unequal production and utilization of oxygen by organisms at different seasons. Both factors cause an exchange of oxygen across the sea's surface. The present paper is an attempt to determine the magnitude of this exchange as it occurs in the Gulf of Maine and to evaluate the factors responsible.
Redfield, Alfred C.. 1948. "The exchange of oxygen across the sea surface." Journal of Marine Research 7, (3). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/674