Stability of the global ocean circulation: The connection of equilibria within a hierarchy of models
We address the problem of the multiple equilibria of the thermohaline circulation in a hierarchy of models. The understanding of the relation between bifurcation diagrams of box models, two-dimensional models and those of a global ocean general circulation model, is facilitated through analysis of the equilibrium solutions of a three-dimensional Atlantic-like sector model with an open southern channel. Using this configuration, the subtle effects of the wind-stress field, the effects of continental asymmetry and the asymmetry in the surface freshwater flux can be systematically studied. The results clarify why there is an asymmetric Atlantic circulation under a near equatorially-symmetric buoyancy forcing. They also lead to an explanation of the hysteresis regime that is found in models of the global ocean circulation. Both explanations are crucial elements to understanding the role of the ocean in past and future climate changes.
Dijkstra, Henk A., and Wilbert Weijer. 2003. "Stability of the global ocean circulation: The connection of equilibria within a hierarchy of models." Journal of Marine Research 61, (6). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/30