Including mean flow forcing due to eddy-topography interaction in a numerical model of the Japan Sea appears to improve defects identified in previous modelling studies. Characteristic western boundary current overshoot (by the East Korea Warm Current) is reduced or eliminated while a southward undercurrent brings colder, fresher water along the Korean coast. Cyclonic circulation in the north includes a strengthened Liman Current. A more nearly continuous Nearshore Branch follows the Honshu shelf break with northward-flowing undercurrent. Interannual variability persists under fixed (seasonally repeating or annual mean) external forcing.
Holloway, Greg, Tessa Sou, and Michael Eby. 1995. "Dynamics of circulation of the Japan Sea." Journal of Marine Research 53, (4). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/2151