The persistent presence of a cold bottom layer and associated bottom fronts was observed in the stratified central North Sea during an observational program in 1981 and 1982. Moored instruments, capturing a snap-shot of such a front while it was advected past these moorings, revealed the simultaneous presence of a well-defined frontal jet with velocities up to 15 cm s−1. The Coriolis force acting on this jet appeared to be in geostrophic balance with the locally intense pressure gradient forces. Hydrographic surveys revealed the presence of both small-scale and large-scale baroclinic waves on this front, the latter reaching wavelengths of 5–10 internal Ross by radii. Some evidence for a weak secondary circulation in the cross-frontal plane was obtained from the observed deformation of isolines near the front.
van Aken, H. M., G. J. van Heijst, and L. R. Maas. 1987. "Observations of fronts in the North Sea." Journal of Marine Research 45, (3). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/1862