A theory of the wind-driven ocean circulation is presented in which the key feature is strong deformation of interior density layers and consequent production of closed geostrophic-contours by the flow itself. The constraint imposed on the subsurface flow by the imposition of a no flux condition where a geostrophic contour strikes a coastal boundary is thus removed. Within regions where the geostrophic contours close the potential vorticity is uniform....
Rhines, Peter B., and William R. Young. 1982. "A theory of wind-driven circulation. I. Mid-ocean gyres." Journal of Marine Research 40, (S). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/1657