The quasigeostrophic, wind-driven circulation theory given by Rhines and Young (1982b) is extended in two directions. First, we consider forcing patterns which are not contrived so as to close without a western boundary layer. The resulting barotropic circulation pattern (see Fig. 1) has the well known east-west asymmetry produced by the β-effect....
Young, William R., and Peter B. Rhines. 1982. "A theory of the wind-driven circulation II. Gyres with western boundary layers." Journal of Marine Research 40, (3). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/1609