The expected errors in first and second moments (means, variances, and covariances) calculated from data records of finite length are analyzed, using formulae based on the spectra. The physical processes from which the data are taken are assumed to be stationary and quasinormal. Asymptotic approximations to these errors (in inverse powers of the record length) are also discussed and compared with the exact expressions....
Flierl, G. R., and J. C. McWilliams. 1977. "On the sampling requirements for measuring moments of eddy variability." Journal of Marine Research 35, (4). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/1420