Surface gravity waves propagating obliquely through a surface current pattern (U(y), V(y)) representative of Langmuir circulations exert a force on the water which tends to produce surface convergences at maxima of U(y). Moreover, the waves achieve their largest amplitude at maxima of U(y) and so are most likely to dissipate there and give up their momentum to the mean flow. A feedback mechanism thus exists...
Garrett, Christopher. 1976. "Generation of Langmuir circulations by surface waves ---- a feedback mechanism." Journal of Marine Research 34, (1). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/1350