The scalar energy spectrum of steady isotropic two-dimensional turbulence is derived for two-dimensional motion in a homogeneous ocean in which the dissipation occurs in a bottom-friction layer. The significant property of the spectrum is a range of wave numbers in which the mean-squared vorticity is conserved and energy is transferred to the friction layer....
Bye, John A.. 1970. "Eddy friction in the ocean." Journal of Marine Research 28, (2). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/1178