A criterion for the existence of an inertial boundary current in a baroclinic ocean is derived. It is shown that the effect of topographical variations can play a decisive role in determining whether an inertial boundary current can exist, even if the velocity field is highly baroclinic.
Pedlosky, Joseph. 1965. "A necessary condition for the existence of an inertial boundary layer in a baroclinic ocean." Journal of Marine Research 23, (2). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/1045