Document Type

Lessons Learned

JEL Codes

G01, G29


Júlia Király was deputy governor of the National Bank of Hungary (Magyar Nemzeti Bank, or MNB) from 2007 to 2013. A financial economist serving on MNB’s advisory board in the 1990s, Király helped formulate and adapt Western banking frameworks for Hungary’s economic transition away from socialism. As deputy governor, she oversaw Hungary’s emergency response to the Global Financial Crisis (GFC). A professor of finance at the International Business School Budapest, Király is the author of Hungary and Other Emerging EU Countries in the Financial Storm, published in 2020. This Lessons Learned is based on an interview with Király on June 7, 2022.