Document Type

Lessons Learned

JEL Codes

G01, G28


Stefan Ingves was head of Sweden’s central bank, the Sveriges Riksbank, from January 2006 through December 2022. During Sweden’s banking crisis of the early 1990s, he was undersecretary and head of the Financial Markets Department at the Ministry of Finance. Previously, he previously was chairman of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and held leadership positions at the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Swedish Bank Support Authority. In November 2021, he was elected to a three-year term as vice-chairman of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS). This Lessons Learned summary is based on an interview with Ingves on December 6, 2022, shortly before he stepped down from the Riksbank.