Document Type

Case Studies


The September 15, 2008, bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers resulted in a collapse of wholesale funding markets that threatened the ability of UK financial institutions to continue funding themselves. By the end of the month, two leading UK banks—HBOS and Bradford & Bingley—had to be rescued, and there was a real risk that the entire financial system could collapse. Faced with the need to stabilize the system, UK regulators on October 8 introduced a package of measures that included a £250 billion Credit Guarantee Scheme (the Guarantee Scheme) aimed at providing banks with access to needed funding. Under the Guarantee Scheme, eligible institutions could pay a risk-based fee and issue debt with terms of up to three years that would be guaranteed by HM Treasury. Debt issuance under the Guarantee Scheme was initially quite significant at approximately £100 billion by the end of 2008. After its issuance window closed on February 28, 2010, the Guarantee Scheme terminated on October 26, 2012, when the final guaranteed debt matured. During the course of its existence, the Guarantee Scheme had guaranteed approximately £134 billion in debt. HM Treasury suffered no losses under the program and earned approximately £4.3 billion in fees