Date of Award

January 2020

Document Type

Open Access Thesis

Degree Name

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)


Yale University School of Nursing

First Advisor

Laura K. Andrews


The Joint Commission requires formal education for healthcare providers who are first responders giving care to patients whose conditions are deteriorating. However, most nursing programs do not include education about the role of first responders during clinical emergencies in the pre-licensure curricula. A literature search shows positive outcomes of increased knowledge, skills competences, and confidence, and that additional education training of the role of the first responder was needed. While there are positive outcomes from the current literature, additional research is needed to further the argument that first responders training is essential in the pre-licensure nursing programs.

This Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) project objective was to prepare pre-licensure nursing students as first responder during clinical emergencies using CART mnemonic© and simulated Cardiopulmonary Arrest (CPA) scenario. The aims were to evaluate the change in knowledge, skills competences and evaluate student’s satisfaction and feedback of the educational interventions. The setting was at University of California, Irvine Sue and Bill Gross School of Nursing in the pre-licensure programs. Using Time to Task to measure initiation of expected tasks within five minutes of the simulation and knowledge questionnaires to assess effectiveness of the educational intervention. Based on results from implementation, subject matter expert responses, and thorough literature review of current evidence and best practice, this DNP project has validated the need for training pre-licensure nursing students as first responder in clinical emergencies. Finally, the educational intervention (CART mnemonic© and simulation) has the potential to improve knowledge, skills competent, and confidence in pre-licensure nursing students responding to clinical emergencies of cardiopulmonary arrest.


This is an Open Access Thesis.

Open Access

This Article is Open Access