Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Medical Science (MMSc)

First Advisor

Michael Hurwitz, MD, PhD


Traditionally, metastatic colorectal cancer has been treated using cytotoxic chemotherapy but the development of immunotherapeutic agents has afforded higher durable remission rates and more tolerable side effect profiles in a small subset of patients. Immunotherapy treatments are currently approved for the treatment of microsatellite instability high subgroup that comprises four percent of metastatic colorectal cancer. However, immunotherapy treatments have little clinical activity in the microsatellite stable subgroup, which encompasses the majority of colorectal cancers. In this phase II trial, we propose to study the efficacy and safety of a three-drug regimen comprised of two immunotherapy treatments, programmed death 1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 blockade, and a cyclooxygenase inhibitor in the microsatellite stable subgroup. This combination aims to increase the treatment eligible proportion of colorectal cancers by establishing a viable immunotherapy option for the microsatellite stable subgroup.

Open Access

This Article is Open Access