The European pine shoot moth has been recognized as a pest .in Europe for over a century. It was first discovered in the United States in 1914, since when it has become a serious enemy of red pine. The insect is becoming increasingly abundant in this country and is known to be present in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, possibly Florida, and in the provinces of Ontario and British .Columbia in Canada. Some fifteen species of pines susceptible to injury in varying degree have been reported as hosts .of this insect, including many of the more important timber trees of both Europe and North Anlerica. A brief morphological description of the more important external characters of all stages of the insect has been given
Friend, Roger B., and Allen S. West, Jr. 1933. The European Pine Shoot Moth (Rhyacionia buoliana Schiff.): With Special Reference to Its Occurrence in the Eli Whitney Forest. Yale School of Forestry Bulletin 37. v, 65 pp. + plates.
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