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Part I. Explorations in the Antofagasta Range, with Observations on the Fauna and Flora About the middle of May, 1957, I began the initial steps towards the making of an expedition to the Antofagasta Range (Chile, S.A.), a region rich in scientific possibilities, yet relatively unknown. The Curator of Vertebrate Zoology of the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University, Mr. S. Dillon Ripley, commissioned me to make a study of the birds of this range and to locate one of the lesser flamingos called "parina chica," about which little is known. Part II. Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) from the Alimentary Tract of Phoenicoparrus jamesi (Sclater) During December, 1957, Phoenicoparrus jamesi (Sclater) was collected by Senor Luis Pena from Laguna Colorado Puna de Atacama, Bolivia, at an elevation of 4,400 meters. … In July, 1957, Senor Luis Pena collected this species in Salt Lake, Atacama, Chile and in Lagunas de Carvajal (salt), Atacama, Chile. Both collections were taken at an elevation of 2,400 meters. An analysis of the contents of the alimentary tracts of these birds showed that they were mainly diatoms. The most common species were Navicula carvajaliana sp. nov., Amphora atacamana sp. nov., Navicula luisii sp. nov., and Nitzschia accedens var. chilensis var. nov. These findings confirm the prediction of Jenkins (1957), based upon the type of filters of Phoenicoparrus jamesi, that this bird would feed on algae or diatoms. …