Specimens of 18 native reptile and amphibian species were collected for the Department of Biology, Santou University, on Nan Ao Island, Guangdong Province, China. Four of five lizard species appear to be new records: Gekko subpalmatus (major range extension), Ateuchosaurus chinensis (we present life history data), Eumeces chinensis and Sphenomorphus indicus. All five snake species appear to be new records: Typhlops ("Ramphotyphlops") braminus, Elaphe radiata, Natrix ("Xenochrophis") piscator, Oligodon formosanus and Trimeresurus cf. albolabris. Five frogs and toads are species already recorded, but Rhacophorus leucomystax (Polypedates megacephalus) and Microhyla ornata are newly recorded. A single Bufo specimen may represent a new species. Rana catesbeiana, introduced from America, is now established in the wild. The native Rana rugulosa was not found. Geological history, ecological conditions and habitat alterations are discussed.