Two species of the middle Eocene palaeanodont (Mammalia) genus Metacheiromys, M. marshi Wortman, 1903 (=M. tatusia Osborn, 1904) and M. dasypus Osborn, 1904 (=M. osborni Simpson, 1931), are recognized as valid. The previously described Palaeanodonta (Edentata) are reviewed and a new subfamily, Propalaeanodontinae, is erected for Propalaeanodon. Propalaeanodon is the plesiomorphous sister-group of the remaining metacheiromyids. The Epocoicotheriidae is a paraphyletic family including the monophyletic Epoicotheriinae and a number of poorly known genera that can not presently be assigned to distinct subfamilies.