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Among many primate fossils from the badlands of Oligocene age in the Fayum Province, Egypt, are specimens of a new species of the genus Parapithecus. The new materials for the first time provide evidence of the upper dentition and mandibular materials show that all the early determinations as to the dental formula of the type species of Parapithecus, P. fraasi, were incorrect. The new species, P. grangeri, is here described. It is suggested that the family Parapithecidae is best ranked in Cerecopithecoidea and that, in fact, Parapithecus and Apidium are the earliest known cercopithecoids.