Buccanodon olivaceum ulugurensis and Viridubucco leucomystax meridionalis (both Capitonidae), new subspecies, are described on the basis of morphological characters. Evidence is presented that Dendropicos fuscescens (Vieillot) and Dendropicos lafresnayi Malherbe ( = D. f. lafresnayi Malherbe) are distinct taxa. The distribution of Smithornis capensis (Smith) is redefined based on an examination of a large series of specimens from eastern Africa. Smithornis capensis meinertzhageni van Someren, S. c. suahelicus Grote, S. c. shimba van Someren, and S. c. chyulu van Someren are reinstated as valid subspecies and a key to their identification is given. Macrodipteryx longipennis (Shaw) is recorded as new to Tanzania. New records of Modulatrix stictigula stictigula (Reichenow) from the Uzungwa Plateau show that this subspecies has a disjunct range in south-central Tanzania. Species and subspecies representing extensions of geographic range in Tanzania are Caprimulgus poliocephalus Ruppell, Tricholaema lacrymosum lacrymosum Cabanis and T. I. ruahae Neumann. Field data from specimens of Alethe fulleborni (Reichenow) reveal that the breeding season coincides with the rainy season, October to March. Call notes and behavior of this species, based on field observations, are also recorded.