The shear stress of the wind on a water surface is sometimes found by measuring the slope of the surface in a lake or wind tunnel. The stress on the bottom of the lake due to the return water current is an error term which has been variously estimated. An experimental method of determining the error is described, and the results indicate that it is but some 1½% of the wind stress.
Francis, J. R.. 1953. "A note on the velocity distribution and bottom stress in a wind-driven water current system." Journal of Marine Research 12, (1). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/785