The electric potentials in and about an ocean current are shown to be related in a simple fashion to the total fluid transport. In many waters, surface measurements alone permit the determination of this total transport. It is also established that the local vertical potential gradient is a measure of the local velocity. Several techniques of measurement, including the "Geomagnetic electrokinetograph" method, and the errors which may be involved in each, are discussed.
Malkus, W. V., and M. E. Stern. 1952. "Determination of ocean transports and velocities by electromagnetic effects." Journal of Marine Research 11, (2). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/762