The Problem. Due to the fact that the water in the ocean is a conductor, and that it is everywhere under the influence of the earth's magnetic field, we should expect, by the law of electric induction, that wherever the water is in motion electric potentials and currents will be established. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the theory of these phenomena in the deep ocean and to indicate certain analytical solutions of the problem which demonstrate the important physical aspects of electlic fields associated with ocean currents.
Stommel, Henry. 1948. "The theory of the electric field induced in deep ocean currents." Journal of Marine Research 7, (3). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/677