The transfer of momentum between the winds and the sea surface is a fundamental problem of oceanography. In the theoretical treatment of drift currents at sea and of the movements in the turbulent layer of air just above, no consideration seems to have been given to the possibility of a varying pattern of flow under unstable conditions. Recently Langmuir (1938) made measurements of "helical vortices set up by wind" in the surface waters of a lake. Lines of Sargassum weed, which are commonly seen on the central North Atlantic, were mentioned as an indication that similar vortices occur in the ocean. The observations of soaring flight presented below suggest that in unstable air at sea there are definite patterns which vary with the velocity and the stability of the wind.
Woodcock, Alfred H.. 1940. "Convection and soaring over the open sea." Journal of Marine Research 3, (3). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/574