The deep-sea circulation of the Atlantic has recently been carefully analyzed by Wiist (1935) who, on the basis of the tongue-like distribution of temperature and salinity, has drawn conclusions as to the direction of flow at different depths. He considers that an exchange of deep :water between the North Atlantic Ocean and the Antarctic Ocean is maintained by a flow to the north along the bottom of Antarctic water and a flow to the south at lesser depths of North Atlantic deep water and Mediterranean water.
Sverdrup, H. U.. 1939. "Lateral mixing in the deep water of the South Atlantic Ocean." Journal of Marine Research 2, (3). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/554