An interdisciplinary project called the Western North Pacific Integrated Physical-Biogeochemical Ocean Observation Experiment (INBOX) has been conducted since 2011. In the oligotrophic subtropics south of the Kuroshio Extension near biogeochemical mooring S1 (30° N, 145° E), 18 floats, each with a dissolved oxygen sensor, have been deployed in a 150 × 150 km square area. With the horizontal (30 km) and temporal (2 days) resolution of the data, we observed an upper ocean structure associated with mesoscale eddies and ocean responses to atmospheric forcing. The data set obtained from the S1-INBOX study was used to elucidate the impacts of physical processes on biogeochemical phenomena. This article is the first in a series of articles: specific information about the floats and a chronology of events are provided.