The GEOSECS Indian Ocean radiocarbon and carbonate chemistry data set are used to estimate the mean upwelling transport of bottom water in the Indian Ocean north of 30S. The study uses an "adjusted radiocarbon concentration" which is corrected for the effects of addition of particulate radiocarbon to the deep ocean. The cross-basin uniformity in the vertical gradients of "adjusted radiocarbon" allows quantification of vertical transfer processes using horizontally averaged concentration and fluxes. The estimated total upwelling flux, north of 30S, is 8.2 ± 1.5 × 106 m3 s-1. The mean upwelling velocity and the vertical diffusivity, in the 3000-4500 m depth range, are estimated as 3 × 106 m s-1 and 2.5 × 10-4 m2 s-1, respectively. The results also suggest faster upwelling in the western Indian Ocean.
Srinivasan, Ashwanth, Claes G. Rooth, Zafer Top, and D. B. Olson. 2000. "Abyssal upwelling in the Indian Ocean: Radiocarbon diagnostics." Journal of Marine Research 58, (5). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/2370