The nonlinear volume changes associated with diffusion and mixing of different seawater types produce significant conversions of gravitational potential energy to kinetic energy to maintain and enhance mixing processes and to limit the magnitudes of temperature gradients that can persist in the ocean. Several examples are given to illustrate these critical temperature gradients beyond which conversion exceeds local energy consumption by mixing. The vertical temperature gradients in the Gulf Stream reduce downstream from Cape Hatteras to the critical limit found in the North Atlantic thermocline. The limiting gradients are also seen in surface thermoclines and in "staircase" structures. Although the theoretical interpretation of the nonlinear limiting processes is still incomplete, the observational evidence is compelling for further study of these mechanisms.
Fofonoff, N. P.. 1998. "Nonlinear limits to ocean thermal structure." Journal of Marine Research 56, (4). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/2292