From January 1979 to June 1981 an oceanographic experiment off the west coast of Canada provided a unique view of a large annual upwelling event. The upwelling is driven by an interaction between the large scale coastal current systems and a narrow canyon that cuts the continental shelf. This interaction allows water to be raised from depths much greater than those normally expected from the classical wind-driven upwelling mechanisms....
Freeland, Howard J., and Kenneth L. Denman. 1982. "A topographically controlled upwelling center off southern Vancouver Island." Journal of Marine Research 40, (4). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/1620