A one-dimensional model for the global meridional oceanic heat transport flux distribution is established which indicates the dominant role of the Ekman heat transports between 35N and 30S, in which the depth averaged ocean temperature is approximately constant, and of the Ekman and diffusive transports at higher latitudes where the depth-average temperature decreases....
Bye, John A.. 1979. "A one-dimensional model of meridional oceanic heat transport." Journal of Marine Research 37, (3). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/1481