Knowledge of the volume transport is of great practical importance in many studies of the flow through or within shallow channels and estuaries. However, transport measurements are often difficult to obtain because of the temporal or spatial variability of the flow. The bulk motion of a stream has been inferred from measurements which integrate the electric field induced by the motion of seawater through the earth's magnetic field....
Sanford, Thomas B., and Reinhard E. Flick. 1975. "On the relationship between transport and motional electric potentials in broad, shallow currents." Journal of Marine Research 33, (1). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/1313