Changes in the electrical charge that occur on the surfaces of test particles of quartz, germanium, and an anion-exchange resin when they are exposed to natural and artificial seawater have been studied by means of microelectrophoresis….
Neihof, Rex, and George Loeb. 1974. "Dissolved organic matter in seawater and the electric charge of immersed surfaces." Journal of Marine Research 32, (1). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/1273