A theoretical study is made of the response of a stratified ocean to an applied wind stress. The ocean has been divided into an Ekman layer, a thermal layer, and an almost isothermal abyssal layer. The velocity and temperature fields were found by matching with the Ekman layer suction produced by the wind stress and by an upwelling condition at the eastern boundary. The surface temperature was determined principally by advection of heat with the oceanic circulation.
Johnson, J. A.. 1971. "On the wind-driven circulation of a stratified ocean." Journal of Marine Research 29, (3). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/1213