A two-layer model of circulation is developed in an open-ocean basin where a vertically homogeneous layer overlays a thermoclinic region. In the latter, the temperature changes in an exponential manner to a constant abyssal value. The motions are driven by an Ekman suction and cooling (or heating) of the ocean surface....
Niiler, Pearn P., and Pieter S. Dubbelday. 1970. "Circulation in a wind-swept and cooled ocean." Journal of Marine Research 28, (2). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/1179