This paper presents a theoretical study of the steady-state density, pressure, and velocity fields in an unbounded ocean driven by the differential heating of the surface and by the divergence or convergence of the Ekman layer….
Needler, G. T.. 1967. "A model for thermohaline circulation in an ocean of finite depth." Journal of Marine Research 25, (3). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/1106