A three-dimensional model of a thermohaline-maintained circulation is presented for a closed basin of finite depth on the beta plane. The circulation, which conserves potential vorticity, consists of a westward drift at all levels in the open ocean and a return flow that is accomplished in a swift eastward-flowing current. A comparison is made to Worthington's recent water-mass analysis of deep circulation in the North Atlantic Basin.
Niiler, P. P., A. R. Robinson, and S. L. Spiegel. 1965. "On thermally maintained circulation in a closed ocean basin." Journal of Marine Research 23, (3). https://elischolar.library.yale.edu/journal_of_marine_research/1057