Gaming and simulation mean diﬀerent things to diﬀerent people. Currently there exist separate schools of individuals working on interrelated but basically diﬀerent areas. Each have their own special goals and terminology. Yet there is a suﬀicient overlap among them that it is important to clarify the common and diﬀerent interests and terminology. The general topic of gaming is ripe for an examination to see to what extent there exists a basic methodology and theory of gaming. This paper addresses itself, in part to this problem. Diﬀerent types of games and diﬀerent purposes are discussed. It is stressed that there is not one validation problem but many validation and speciﬁcation problems which must be addressed if professional standards are to be attained.
Shubik, Martin, "On the Scope of Gaming" (1971). Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers. 551.